Some Articles Featuring Funny Cow Games

Just a quick update to note that we have been fortunate enough to have been picked up by some blogs and news outlets recently:

We are honored to have been featured by these publications and sites, and look forward to sharing more updates in the near future!

ForesTree: Closing the loop on Dad’s 30-year old idea

Funny Cow Games has recently released our first educational game, ForesTree, on both iOS and Android. Made in partnership with artist Cynthia Bauzon-Arre and Forest Foundation Philippines, it adopts the card-matching, memory-training game format as a tool to teach children and adults alike about trees that are native to the Philippines. Featuring Bauzon-Arre’s beautiful, hand-drawn illustrations, players learn to match pictures of each tree as well as its leaves, fruits, and flowers.

More than just my first mobile game made with a team, however, this project is in fact also quite personal in nature, as it closes the loop on a 30-year old request from my Dad.

My Dad was very supportive of my early interest in programming. I have clear memories of him looking over my shoulder as I messed around on the Apple computer he used for work when I was around the second grade. After showing him a game I made that mimicked Lode Runner, a game I dearly loved, he began taking my hobby more seriously. When finding a teacher or mentor didn’t work out, he began buying me manuals and technical books, and soon was actively participating in the hobby, offering ideas and insights for games we could make.

One idea that he planted early, and which I suspect he never truly let go of, was a game that promoted environmental awareness and activism. He had always been in love with nature, having grown up in the boondocks and fishponds of Davao; the foyer of our house had an enormous painting of a Philippine Eagle staring at you straight on. (He also tacked a large, white “Save Our Eagle” sticker on the literal rear bumper of his otherwise premium-looking dark green car…)

He called his game “Save the Forest,” pretty cheesy if I am being honest. In the first level, you play the human protector of a forest, running around with your machete and hacking down illegal loggers in gory animated detail. For level two, you, as a monkey, run around planting seeds on the ground in the midst of a torrential rain; the objective is to grow enough trees (they were remarkably fast-growing trees) to counteract the rapidly rising flood before it was too late. We never got around to working on the third level, but, looking back, that game was probably never destined to reach publication and distribution.

ForesTree is probably less dramatic than the environmental game Dad envisioned. But with the educational aspect, classic game format, and the all-age appeal, I hope that the game will be much more impactful, while being ever more relevant now than it was in the 80s. And it does feel like closure for me; I’d always felt like I failed him on one of the few serious requests he made of me while he was alive. So this one’s for you, Dad.

Cirqits Android Launch and iOS Update

Today Funny Cow Games is excited to announce important updates to Cirqits: the launch of the Android version on Google Play, and the iOS update which brings the delightful Vintage Camera theme and five new shapes—Small and Big Capsule, House, and Pointed Rock (by M) and Pointed Star (by S)!

Cirqits on Google Play

Many people have asked me about an Android version, especially when they see me or my family playing it on our iPhones and iPads. I’d always been more of an Apple ecosystem kind of guy—the very first computer I ever used was an Apple IIc in the 80s—and had been intimidated by the seemingly complicated development and release process for Android and Play Store. However, since I was already working on an Android version of another game (more on this soon!), and had tooled myself up accordingly, I spent a few days updating and preparing Cirqits for cross-platform deployment. To my surprise, it was quite painless, and I was running the first draft version on my test device after less than half a day’s work.

After some more tweaking and testing, today we are thrilled to offer Cirqits for Android (or I guess “Android Cirqits” which does have a certain ring to it). Available on the Play Store here, it includes all the features from the iOS version, including the newly released updates below!

The new Vintage Camera theme

The new Vintage Camera theme is inspired by two of my cameras: the Nikon FM2 and the Fujifilm X100S.

The FM2 (left) and X100S (right). Fun fact: The photos in this blog post were taken with my Dad’s pre-1980, still-tack-sharp Micro-Nikkor 55mm f/3.5 mounted on my Fujifilm XT-2. Old meets new!

The Nikon FM2 is an inheritance from my father. He bought it in the early 1980s (!); it is the camera with which he taught me photography when I was a young boy, and the camera I re-learned photography with, about 15 years ago, some time after he had passed away. It is a purely mechanical camera, needing tiny batteries only for the light meter, if you decide to use it (otherwise you can use an external light meter, or the good old Sunny 16 rule). It had no screens or multifunction buttons: one used the camera solely through physical knobs, buttons, and switches. It features incredible build quality, and the attention to detail its design and manufacture are second to none. It is one of the very few physical mementos I have of my Dad, so I really go out of my way to take care of it and regularly send it in for cleaning and lubrication. It still works flawlessly to this day. Not bad for a ~40 year old device; I would love to see any of today’s TVs, smartphones, or even vehicles working this well after 20 years.

The Fujifilm X100S, on the other hand, is one that I bought with my own money, when my wife T and I were expecting our firstborn child. I already had a DSLR at the time, but I wanted something more modern and more appropriate for on-the-go, daily use. The X100S fit the bill with its winning combination of fantastic optics and ergonomics: it’s a camera with such intuitive, tactile controls that I can use it entirely by feel. It was, in fact, the camera that I brought with me into the delivery room for both M and S, and is so easy to use that the anesthesiologist at M’s birth was able to take it and snap our very first family photo on the spot.

There are so many wonderful details in how these two cameras look and feel, so part of the challenge was simply selecting what to reflect and pay tribute to in Cirqits. In the end I settled on…the control knobs.

These are such basic objects that probably very few people pay attention to them, so it was fun to really study them closely and model them faithfully and respectfully, while also paying attention to rendering and performance constraints. As a bonus, the theme is more than just visual: I also recorded the actual sounds of the FM2’s knobs and shutter mechanisms (the shutter in the audio sample fires at 1/4000sec; how that is achieved purely mechanically is, for me, an engineering marvel).

I am releasing Vintage Camera as a free theme so that as many Cirqits players as possible can try it out. Through the game, I hope that I can share even just a fraction of my deep sense of wonder and reverence for the cameras, through the knurled knobs and (simulated) mechanical workings.

The Road To Cirqits

Cirqits is a puzzle game that we released in early 2020 on iOS (Update: Now available on Android as well!). The game presents you with different multi-faced solid shapes; each face has a particular arrangement of links on it, which can be freely rotated. When a lit face is properly linked to an adjacent face, the second face lights up as well. The objective is find the proper orientation of all of a puzzle’s faces such that everything is linked and lit.

The core idea behind the game came to me and my daughters while we were playing other games with similar tile-rotation mechanics, but in the conventional two-dimensional format. As we were also heavily into origami at the time, it occurred to us that the gameplay mechanic could also work well with polyhedra in three dimensions.

The concept was sound. There were many challenges to overcome, though none were insurmountable. Fortunately they were all the types of problem that I enjoy thinking through. The big ones included:

  • How should the base shapes be defined and encoded (the Cube, Hexaball, Dodecahedron, etc)?
  • How should the 3D models be made, considering the different visual themes?
  • How should the puzzles be created? By puzzles I am referring to “the links on each face such that there is at least 1 solution.”

The Base Shapes

The first question to hurdle was how to define and encode the base shapes in a simple, flexible, and serializable way. (“Serializable” in this context refers to how something can be expressed unambiguously as a piece of text.) It needed to meet these criteria to allow the saving and restoration of game state, and also to facilitate the automatic generation of the puzzle itself – that is, the game could look at the layout and figure out which faces connected to which.

The answer was fairly straightforward. As a child, I spent a lot of time drawing diagrams of “unwrapped” cubes, tetrahedrons, and other polyhedra, and cutting them out and folding them into shape, so expressing the base shapes as flat arrangements of linked polygons became a natural approach.

Working out fold angles
Sketching the Beveled Cube and the Beveled Tetra

Above are a couple of pages from my hand-drawn notes in late 2019 where I was working out how the shapes would be laid out. For the game, I then created a small program that would facilitate the layout and encoding of these base shapes. After shape layouts are made by building polygons out from another polygon’s edges and designating fold angles, the tool would encode the layout into a bit of text that concisely described the number of sides in a given polygon, the polygons attached to it, the number of sides of those polygons, and so on. For instance, a 1x1x1 cube would be encoded as “a square, with each edge having another square folded at 90 degrees, with one of those four squares having another square folded at 90 degrees at the opposite edge.”

The shape editor. My daughters saw me fiddling with this, and after I let them have a go at it, M came up with the Maiagon shape (more commonly known as the hexagonal prism).

The 3D Models

After settling the question of the base shapes, it was time to bridge these base shapes to the actual 3D meshes that the game will use to present the puzzle to the player, in all their full visual detail.

The obvious approach would have been creating each mesh in a dedicated 3D modeling program such as Blender and then importing these into Unity. However, this would not have scaled well:

  • Reconciling each mesh with the underlying gameplay logic (so that the right things would be rotating by the right amounts to connect to the right adjacent faces) would have been tedious and also introduce lots of fuzziness in the math due to floating point issues, which could lead to seam tearing (i.e. “cracks” in the graphics that occur due to edges not lining up perfectly).
  • I would have to create meshes for each combination of base shape and theme (again, tedious), PLUS, for each theme, also create meshes for every possible face permutation. The pentagon face (used in the Dodecahedron and Star shapes) has at least 1 and at most 5 links, making 7 possible permutations (after discounting permutations that are rotated versions of other permutations).
  • Every time I change the design, I’d have to manually redo all of the above.

Given 13 shapes and 5 themes, the numbers added up really fast. Therefore, procedural generation—constructing meshes by having the code calculate coordinates for each vertex and triangle in real-time—became the only approach that would not lead to madness. Procedural generation is hard work at first, but this is “front-loaded” effort that, once done, scales easily to any application: after writing the code to generate the triangles needed for, say, the fluted bezels of Ref 708, translating and mapping them to any face in any shape could be seamlessly done at runtime. Adjusting a theme—say, adjusting the height of the bezel—would then be just a matter of adjusting a single value in code.

Mesh and solid views of the Ref 708 theme; the position of every vertex of every triangle is calculated at the start of each puzzle in real-time, given a base shape and the random initial state of the puzzle

Puzzle Generation

Similar to the above, manually creating each puzzle (that is, the arrangement of links on faces such that a solution is feasible) was not an option I entertained. While doing so would have allowed “trick puzzles” or those with aesthetically pleasing/surprising solutions, such as a single long snaking and circular path, I wanted to prioritize replayability by having the game dynamically generate puzzles.

As it turned out, this type of problem, which can be called graph traversal, has been extensively studied and several algorithms exist for the generation of “mazes”—that is, node graphs where all nodes are linked together—according to different parameters, such as your preferences for dead ends and straight lines. In the end, I settled on two algorithms, Kruskal’s Algorithm, and a “recursive depth-first” approach, that offered good enough variety and solvability. Furthermore, upon startup, the game estimates the difficulty level of each combination of 3D shape and algorithm, and sorts them accordingly, to generate a mapping of the player’s streak length, and the appropriate combinations of shape and maze algorithm to use: the more you solve in a row, the harder the puzzles that will be presented.

Another benefit of setting up the internal code so that the puzzle algorithm implementations are independent and modular was that, later on, additional algorithms could be added easily, and the game would automatically know how to use them and map them to the difficulty ladder.

The game assigning difficulty ratings to shape-algorithm combinations

Other Stuff

Aside from these there were other, smaller, but no less fun problems to solve:

  • The determination of colors for the different faces in the Pop theme is done by an implementation of the Welsh Powell graph coloring algorithm, such that no two adjacent faces have the same color. (If this fascinates you, I suggest reading up on the four color theorem which states that for any map or diagram where shapes are contiguous to one another, one only needs up to four colors.)
    • UPDATE (14 Mar 2021) to the above point: I just found that the game’s coloring algorithm, when applied to the Dodecahedron shape, results, in many cases, in 2 or 3 adjacent faces having the same color. Upon reviewing the literature, it turns out that the Welsh Powell algorithm (which I also previously typed as “Walsh-Powell”…*facepalm*) does NOT guarantee satisfying both the “no adjacent faces having the same color” and the “four colors or less” objectives simultaneously. In fact, it looks like, in the worst cases, the algorithm will need d + 1 colors, where d represents the degree of the shape, or the highest number of sides for any face (in Dodecahedron’s case, the degree would be 5). And because I only supplied 4 color options, the algorithm settles for an imperfect solution. Color me surprised. Adding this to my list of fixes to make for the next update…
  • The glow effect on the default theme was inspired by the Northern Lights, which my wife and I were fortunate enough to have experienced in Iceland. The effect is achieved through procedural generation of “glow meshes” which are then rendered using custom shaders that deform the mesh and modify its texture in real-time to make the green glow appear to dance.
A close-up of the glow effect on the Default theme


I read somewhere that “all art is autobiographical,” and while I wouldn’t presume to claim that Cirqits is art, I have indeed come to recognize its autobiographical nature. As I designed and developed it, different bits of inspiration and insight came together from different facets of my life, from making shapes with paper and tape as a child, to my lifelong love of puzzles and games, to my appreciation of how physical, tactile things come together (the Ref 708 theme was inspired by my watch), to my experiences of traveling, photography, and fatherhood.